How to Structure an Off-Ice Conditioning Program for Figure Skaters?

April 16, 2024

As figure skaters, you’re likely familiar with the demands the sport places on your body. The ice is a unique, challenging environment, demanding not only skill and precision but also a high degree of physical fitness. Achieving your best performance requires a combination of strength, balance, flexibility, and endurance. While practice on the ice is crucial, off-ice training is also an integral part of reaching your skating potential. This article aims to guide you through constructing an effective off-ice conditioning program, specifically tailored to the needs of figure skaters.

Understanding the Physical Demands of Skating

Before diving into the specifics of training, let’s take a moment to understand the physical demands placed on a skater’s body. Understanding these will help tailor your off-ice exercises to the skills you need on the ice.

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Figure skating is a sport that requires a unique blend of strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance. Strength is necessary for jumps, particularly for the take-off and landing. Flexibility helps skaters perform the various spins and positions required in routines. Balance is essential because skaters are often on one leg, sometimes in complex positions, moving at high speed. Lastly, endurance is needed to maintain energy levels throughout a routine, which can last several minutes.

The biggest physical demand on a skater’s body probably comes from the jumps. These require a combination of leg strength for the take-off, core strength for the rotation in the air, and leg and core strength for the landing. The repeated impact of these jumps can place a significant strain on the skater’s body, particularly the knees and ankles.

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Strength Training for Skaters

The first factor in an off-ice training program for skaters is strength training. This will help skaters improve their power for jumps and increase their overall muscular strength, reducing the risk of injury from falls or overuse.

Lower body strength is essential for skaters, particularly in the quadriceps and glutes. Squats, lunges, and plyometric exercises like box jumps can be particularly beneficial. Additionally, core training is crucial for stability and rotation during jumps. Planks, Russian twists, and bicycle crunches are all excellent exercises to include in your routine.

It is important to remember that strength training should be balanced, working both the pushing and pulling muscles. For example, if you are doing a lot of squats (a pushing exercise), be sure to also include some hamstring curls (a pulling exercise) to avoid imbalances that could lead to injury.

Enhancing Balance and Flexibility

Balance and flexibility are also crucial factors that should be addressed in an off-ice conditioning program. These skills will improve your control on the ice and help you execute more complex moves.

For balance, exercises like single-leg stands, Bosu ball workouts, and yoga can be very beneficial. These types of exercises challenge your body to maintain stability in different positions, which directly translates to improved balance on the ice.

Flexibility can be enhanced through a regular stretching routine. Skaters should focus on the hips, hamstrings, quadriceps, and shoulders, as these areas are often utilised during skating. Incorporating a variety of stretch types—like dynamic stretches, static stretches, and PNF stretching—can help improve your overall flexibility.

Building Endurance

Endurance training is a final important component of off-ice training. While figure skating routines may not last as long as a soccer match or a marathon, they require a high level of sustained energy.

Cardiovascular exercises such as running, cycling, or swimming can be helpful in building this endurance. Interval training, where you alternate periods of high-intensity exercise with recovery periods, can be particularly effective. This type of training can help improve your body’s ability to use oxygen efficiently, which is crucial for maintaining energy levels during a routine.

Structuring Your Training Program

Now that we’ve discussed the key components of an off-ice conditioning program, it’s time to think about how to structure your training. The best approach will depend on your individual needs, goals, and schedule.

Consider your on-ice practice schedule. You’ll want to balance your off-ice conditioning around this, ensuring you have enough rest days for your body to recover. If you have a particularly intense on-ice practice, you might want to schedule a lighter off-ice day, focused on flexibility or endurance rather than strength.

Set specific goals for your off-ice training, just as you would with your on-ice practice. This could be improving your jump height, increasing your flexibility for a particular move, or increasing your endurance for the final part of your routine. Having clear goals will keep you motivated and help you measure your progress over time.

Finally, ensure your program is varied. This not only helps keep you engaged but also ensures that you are working all the relevant muscles and skills. Include a mix of strength, flexibility, balance, and endurance exercises, and consider trying new exercises or activities to keep your training fresh and exciting.

Remember, the goal of off-ice training is to complement your on-ice practice and help you become a stronger, more robust, and more skilled skater. By incorporating these elements into your off-ice training, you will be well on your way to achieving your figure skating goals.

Incorporating Warm-up and Cool-down Routines

Every effective conditioning program should factor in warm-up and cool-down routines. These are integral for preparing the body for the impending workout and for recovery post-training.

To begin, a warm-up is intended to gradually increase your body’s temperature and heart rate. This is crucial as it prepares your body for the more strenuous exercises ahead. A good warm-up may include light cardio exercises such as jogging or jumping jacks, or dynamic stretches that mimic the movements you’ll be doing in your workout. For figure skaters, this could mean mimicking jumps and spins off the ice.

Cool-down exercises, on the other hand, help your body to recover post-training. This involves reducing your heart rate and stretching out the muscles you have used during the workout. It’s a vital part of your training regimen as it can help prevent injury, reduce muscle soreness, and improve flexibility. For a skater, this could include static stretches focusing on the hips, hamstrings, and quadriceps, which are heavily utilised during ice skating.

Remember, a warm-up should be performed before every training session, and a cool-down should be done after. They are non-negotiable components of a well-rounded off-ice conditioning program.

Seeking Guidance From a Qualified Coach

While it’s possible to construct your own off-ice conditioning program, seeking advice from a qualified coach or trainer can be extremely beneficial. A coach, such as Coach Aimee, a renowned figure skating coach in the Skate USA program, can provide expert guidance tailored to your specific needs and goals.

A coach will assess your individual strengths and weaknesses and create a specific training program for you. This can include recommendations on sets and reps, specific exercises to focus on, and advice on how to balance on-ice and off-ice training. They are also a valuable resource for ensuring you are performing exercises correctly and safely.

Moreover, working with a coach can assist in motivation and accountability. Skating can be a very demanding sport, and having someone to encourage you and track your progress can be a game-changer.


In conclusion, figure skaters who want to maximize their performance should not overlook off-ice training. The combination of on-ice and off-ice practices will help you build strength, improve balance, increase flexibility, and boost endurance levels.

Incorporating a variety of exercises that focus on key muscles involved in skating can help enhance your on-ice performance. Don’t neglect the importance of warm-up and cool-down routines, and try seeking the guidance of a professional coach for expert advice.

By following the guidance outlined in this article, you’re on the right path to improving your skating skills and overall ice performance. Remember that consistent effort and a positive mindset will bring you closer to your figure skating goals. Keep pushing your limits, and enjoy the journey of becoming a more robust and skilled figure skater.